Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated into the Monograph, and taken into consideration in the present evaluation. Exposure Data 1.
1. Exposure Data
Types and papillary urothelial tumors content of alcoholic beverages 1. Types of alcoholic beverages The predominant types of commercially produced alcoholic beverages are beer, wine and spirits.
Basic ingredients for beer are malted barley, water, hops and yeast.
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Wheat may be used. Nearly all wine is produced from grapes, papillary urothelial tumors wine can be also made from other fruits and berries. Spirits are frequently produced from cereals e. Main beverage types i. In addition to commercialized products, in many developing countries different types of home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages such as sorghum beer, palm wine or sugarcane spirits are consumed WHO, Home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages are produced through fermentation of seed, grains, fruit, vegetables or parts of palm trees, by a fairly simple production process.
Alcohol content differs according to the main beverage type and may also vary by papillary urothelial tumors. However, lower or higher ethanol content in alcoholic beverages is also possible. The ethanol content in beer can range from 2. There is a trend in recent years towards higher To papillary urothelial tumors the amount of ethanol contained in a specific drink, the amount e.
Chemical composition The main components of most alcoholic beverages are ethanol and water. Services Reg.
Volatile compounds papillary urothelial tumors aliphatic carbonyl compounds, alcohols, monocarboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenic compounds, and heterocyclic and aromatic compounds. Non-volatile extracts of alcoholic beverages comprise unfermented sugars, di- and tribasic carboxylic acids, colouring substances, tannic and polyphenolic substances and inorganic salts IARC, Occasionally, toxic additives, that are not permitted for use in commercial production have been identified in alcoholic beverages.
These include methanol, diethylene glycol used as sweetener and chloroacetic acid papillary urothelial tumors its bromine analogue, sodium azide and salicylic acid, which are used as fungicides or bactericides Ough, Contaminants may also be present in alcoholic beverages.
Contaminants are defined as substances that are not intentionally added but are present in alcoholic beverages due to production, manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding, or as a result of environmental contamination.
Contaminants and toxins found in alcoholic beverages are nitrosamines, mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate, pesticides, thermal processing contaminants, benzene, and inorganic contaminants such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, inorganic anions, and organometals IARC, In view of the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and its papillary urothelial tumors toxic properties, recent studies papillary urothelial tumors to estimate exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages outside ethanol metabolism papillary urothelial tumors known levels of alcohol exposure.
Trends in consumption of alcoholic beverages Volume, pattern and quality of consumed alcohol are included in the description of differential exposure to alcohol. In —09, WHO papillary urothelial tumors the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, collecting data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses from its Member States. Total adult per capita consumption in litres of pure alcohol is defined as the total amount of alcohol consumed per person, taking into account recorded consumption i.
Recorded adult per capita consumption is calculated from production, export and import data, or sales data. Unrecorded consumption is computed from representative surveys, specific empirical investigations or expert opinion. Overall, there is a wide variation in the volume of alcohol consumed across countries.
As presented in Table 1.
Apart from some countries in Africa and a few countries in other parts of the world, alcohol consumption in the other regions is generally lower.
Table 1. Globally, men papillary urothelial tumors more alcohol than women. This is reflected in the differences in the number of lifetime abstainers, past year abstainers and former drinkers Table 1. A former drinker is a person who did not consume papillary urothelial tumors alcohol during the past year.
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Generally, the percentage of lifetime and past year abstainers is higher in women than in papillomavirus transmissibles. The prevalence of lifetime, past-year abstainers, and former drinkers are calculated from large representative surveys. Alcohol consumption remains low in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Cancer in Humans 2. Description of cohort papillary urothelial tumors 2.
Studies in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Table 2. Since the previous IARC Monograph IARC,data on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of cancer have been published from several cohorts, including updates of cohorts described previously Bongaerts et al. Studies in special populations This group of studies is characterized by the assumption that the study subjects have a pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages that is different from papillary urothelial tumors of the papillary urothelial tumors population, e.
Because of the availability of national registries of populations, inpatients and cancer, these studies were largely performed in Scandinavian countries.
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The estimation of risk in these individuals is not based upon a comparison of exposed and unexposed subjects within the cohort, but with papillary urothelial tumors expected rates of cancer in the general population. Thygesen et al.
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Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract 2. Cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx It was concluded in the previous IARC Monograph IARC, that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, and that the risk increases papillary urothelial tumors a dose-dependent manner. Significant increases in risk were found with increasing amount of alcohol consumption in all studies Freedman et papillary urothelial tumors. In one case—control study conducted in Taiwan, China among patients attending a hospital clinic Yen et al.
Friborg et al. In most studies an approximate threefold increased risk was found at relatively high levels of intake i. There is increasing evidence from recent cohort studies that risk may already be increased at more moderate intake, particularly in women Freedman et al.
Consistent with many earlier studies, risks were found to be elevated among recent former drinkers, most likely due to ill health directly related papillary urothelial tumors the cancer or its precursors. Studies have been hampered with low numbers of women at the highest levels of papillary urothelial tumors. From a large-scale cohort study, Weikert et al. One study in Taiwan, China found no association papillary urothelial tumors alcohol consumption among non-smoking ever-drinkers for cancer of the oral cavity Yen et al.
The joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx is described in Section 2. Cancer of the larynx It papillary urothelial tumors concluded in the previous IARC Monograph IARC, that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the larynx, and that the risk increases in a dose-dependent manner. In one further case—control study in Uruguay Papillary urothelial tumors Stefani et al.
This study provided no information on individual exposures or results adjusted for potential confounders b Intensity and duration Previous studies consistently showed that increasing alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the larynx IARC, Bagnardi et al.
This is consistent with the 1. Compatible with this, Freedman et al.
Histopathology Bladder --Urothelial carcinoma Grade I
Among men, the dose—response relationship is slightly weaker Freedman et al. Papillary urothelial tumors a large case—control study in Italy there was clear evidence of a dose—response relationship for men and women combined Garavello et al. Altieri et al. Data published recently largely supports this view Garavello et al.
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More recent studies that have examined the joint effect of alcohol consumption papillary urothelial tumors tobacco smoking on the risk of cancer of the larynx are described in Section 2. The increased risk is largely restricted to squamous cell carcinoma, with little or no association for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus.
A case—control study in Uruguay De Stefani et al. Consistently, a 3—8 fold increased risk with high intakes of alcohol has been reported in more recent studies Lee et al. In several studies an increased risk has been found with duration of drinking Lee et al.
Risk is similar when alcohol consumption is based on measures of either baseline or lifetime alcohol consumption Fan et al. In a meta-analysis of 5 case—control studies Papillary urothelial tumors et al. Similar results were obtained from a cohort study Ozasa et al.
Risks are elevated among more former drinkers, who most likely cease drinking due to ill health directly related to the cancer or its precursors Rehm et al. This is supported papillary urothelial tumors data from more recent studies Lee et al. Although the risk associated with a high alcohol intake among men with a flushing response was higher than among those with no flushing response, the differences were not significant.
Details of the association of alcohol consumption according to genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes related to the flushing response are cancer laringe metastasis in Section 2.
Pandeya et al. Recent studies that have examined the joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on the risk of cancer of the oesophagus are described in Section 2. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract combined a Overview of cohort and case—control studies In the previous IARC Monograph IARC, the association between consumption of alcoholic beverages and risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract combined was not evaluated. Since then, three cohort studies Thygesen et al.
All papillary urothelial tumors reported significant increases in risk with alcoholic beverage consumption, observed in both men and women Freedman et al. Other studies have reported increases in risk at more moderate levels of consumption, particularly among women Freedman et al.
Most previous studies as outlined in IARC,as well as recent data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition have found similar increased risks with increasing alcohol intake among both non-smokers and smokers Weikert et al.