Part III: neoplastic thyroid disease. Little JW 1.
Tumor cancer types benign malignant following surgical excision is quite common and a tumor that was considered originally as benign in many cases can recur as a malignant tumor. The purpose of this paper is to underline the difficulties in terms of establishing a correct diagnosis and a proper therapeutic protocol when facing a retroperitoneal mass of unknown origin, as well as to present the available data regarding prognosis, treatment options and tumor recurrence. Retroperitoneal tumors can be classified as benign or malignant; solid, cystic or both; single or multiple, and of varied histological types.
Thyroid tumors are the most common endocrine neoplasms. Most of these cancer types benign malignant are benign hyperplastic or colloid nodules or benign follicular adenomas. A major clinical challenge is establishing which nodules are hyperplastic, benign, or malignant.
History, clinical findings, ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy are the mainstays for diagnosis. There are 3 main histologic types of thyroid cancer: differentiated, cancer types benign malignant, and anaplastic. Differentiated lesions are subdivided into papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cell carcinomas.
In addition, primary lymphoma may occur in the thyroid gland and other cancers may metastasize to the thyroid. An important neoplastic syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 MEN2involves medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
In there were 10 cases of thyroid cancer per population.
The prognosis for anaplastic carcinoma is very poor and 5-year survival is rare. The dentist by inspection and palpation of the neck in the area of the thyroid gland may detect single or multiple lesions that may be benign or malignant.
Patients with identified nodules or enlarged thyroid glands should be referred for diagnosis and treatment. Patients with thyroid cancer will benefit from the early detection and treatment of their lesions as early detection can lead to a cure or prolongation of their life.