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Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated into the Monograph, and taken into consideration in the present evaluation. Exposure Data 1. Types and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages 1.

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Types of alcoholic beverages The predominant types of commercially produced alcoholic beverages are beer, wine and spirits. Basic ingredients for beer are malted papillomas prevention, water, hops and yeast.

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Wheat may be used. Nearly papillomas prevention wine is produced from grapes, although wine can be also made from other fruits and berries. Spirits are frequently produced from cereals e. Main beverage types i. In addition to papillomas prevention products, in many developing countries different types of home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages such as sorghum beer, palm wine or sugarcane spirits are consumed WHO, Home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages are produced through fermentation of seed, grains, fruit, vegetables or parts of palm trees, by a fairly simple papillomas prevention process.

Alcohol content differs according to the main beverage type and may also vary by country. Papillomas prevention prevention, lower or higher ethanol content in alcoholic beverages is also possible. The ethanol content in beer can range from 2. There is a trend in recent years towards higher To calculate the amount of ethanol contained in a specific drink, the amount e.

Chemical composition The main components of most alcoholic beverages are ethanol and water. Services Reg. Volatile compounds include aliphatic carbonyl compounds, alcohols, monocarboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenic compounds, and heterocyclic and aromatic papillomas prevention.

Non-volatile extracts of alcoholic beverages comprise unfermented sugars, di- and tribasic carboxylic acids, colouring substances, tannic and polyphenolic substances papillomas prevention inorganic salts IARC, Occasionally, toxic additives, that are not papiloma pie contagio genital for use in commercial production have been identified in alcoholic beverages.

These include methanol, diethylene glycol used papillomas prevention sweetener and chloroacetic acid or its bromine analogue, sodium azide and salicylic acid, which are used as fungicides or bactericides Ough, Contaminants may also be present in alcoholic beverages. Contaminants are defined as substances that are not intentionally added but are present in alcoholic beverages due to production, manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding, or as a result of environmental contamination.

Contaminants and toxins found in alcoholic beverages are nitrosamines, mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate, pesticides, thermal processing contaminants, benzene, and inorganic contaminants such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, inorganic anions, and organometals IARC, In view of the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and its known papillomas prevention properties, recent studies attempted to papillomas prevention exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages outside ethanol metabolism at known levels of alcohol dysbiosis treatment natural. Trends in consumption of papillomas prevention beverages Volume, pattern and quality of consumed alcohol are included papillomas prevention the description of differential exposure papillomas prevention alcohol.

In —09, WHO conducted the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, collecting data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses from its Member States.

Total adult per capita papillomas prevention in litres of pure alcohol is defined as the total amount of alcohol consumed per person, taking into account recorded consumption i. Recorded adult per capita consumption is calculated from papillomas prevention, export and import data, or sales data.

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Unrecorded consumption is computed from representative surveys, specific empirical investigations or expert opinion. Overall, there is a wide variation in the volume of alcohol consumed across countries. papillomas prevention

As presented in Table 1. Apart from some countries in Africa and a few countries in other parts of the world, alcohol consumption in the other regions is generally lower.

Table 1. Globally, men consume more papillomas prevention than women. This is reflected in the differences in the number of lifetime abstainers, past year abstainers papillomas prevention former drinkers Table 1.

A former drinker is a person who did not consume any alcohol during the past year.

Generally, the percentage of lifetime and past year abstainers is higher in women than in men. The prevalence of lifetime, past-year abstainers, and former drinkers are calculated from large representative surveys. Alcohol consumption remains low in the Papillomas prevention Mediterranean Region.

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Cancer in Humans 2. Description of cohort studies 2. Studies in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Papillomas prevention. Since the previous IARC Monograph IARC,data on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of cancer have been published from several cohorts, including updates of cohorts described previously Bongaerts et al.

Studies in papillomas prevention populations This papillomas prevention of toxine a clostridium difficile is characterized by the assumption that the study subjects have a pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages that is different from that of the general population, papillomas prevention.

Because of the availability of national registries of populations, inpatients and cancer, these studies were largely performed in Scandinavian countries. The estimation of risk in these individuals is not based upon a comparison of exposed and unexposed subjects within the cohort, but with the expected rates of cancer in the general population.

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Thygesen et al. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract 2. Cancer of the oral cavity and papillomas prevention It was concluded in the previous IARC Monograph IARC, that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, and that the risk increases in a dose-dependent manner. Significant increases in risk were found with increasing amount of alcohol consumption in papillomas prevention studies Freedman et al.

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In one case—control study conducted in Taiwan, China among patients attending a hospital clinic Yen et al. Friborg et al. In most studies an approximate threefold increased risk was found at relatively high levels of intake i.

There is increasing evidence from recent papillomas prevention studies that papillomas prevention may already be increased at more moderate intake, particularly in papillomas prevention Freedman et al. Consistent with many earlier studies, risks were found to be elevated among recent former drinkers, most likely papillomas prevention to ill health directly related to the cancer or its precursors.

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Studies have been hampered with low numbers of women at the highest levels of exposure. From a large-scale cohort study, Weikert et al.

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One study in Taiwan, China found no association with alcohol consumption among non-smoking ever-drinkers papillomas prevention cancer of the oral cavity Yen et al. The joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on the risk of cancers of papillomas prevention oral cavity and pharynx is described in Section 2. Cancer of the larynx It was concluded in the previous IARC Monograph IARC, that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the larynx, and that the risk increases in a dose-dependent manner.

In one further papillomas prevention study in Uruguay De Stefani et al. This study provided no information on individual exposures or results adjusted for potential confounders b Intensity and duration Previous studies consistently showed that increasing alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the larynx IARC, Bagnardi et al.

This is consistent with the 1. Compatible with this, Freedman et al.

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Among men, the dose—response relationship is slightly weaker Freedman et al. In a large case—control study in Italy there was clear evidence of a dose—response papillomas prevention for men and women combined Garavello et al.

Altieri et al. Data published recently largely supports this view Garavello et al.

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More recent studies that have examined the joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on the risk of cancer of the larynx are described in Papillomas prevention 2.