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Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated into the Monograph, and taken into consideration in the present evaluation. Exposure Data 1.

Types and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages 1. Types of alcoholic beverages The predominant types of commercially produced alcoholic hpv high risk interp positive are beer, wine and spirits.

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Basic ingredients for beer are malted barley, water, hops and yeast. Wheat may be used.

Nearly all wine is produced from grapes, although wine can be also made from other fruits and berries. Spirits are frequently produced from cereals e. Main beverage types i.

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In addition to commercialized products, in many developing countries different types of home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages such as sorghum beer, palm wine or sugarcane spirits are consumed WHO, Home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages are produced through fermentation of seed, grains, fruit, vegetables or parts of palm trees, by a fairly simple production process.

Alcohol content differs according to the main beverage type and may also vary by country.

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However, lower or higher ethanol content in alcoholic beverages is also possible. The ethanol content in beer can range from 2.

There is a trend in recent years towards higher To calculate the amount of ethanol contained in a specific drink, the amount e. Chemical composition The main components of most alcoholic beverages are ethanol and water. Services Reg.

hpv high risk interp positive

Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions.

Volatile compounds include aliphatic carbonyl compounds, alcohols, monocarboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenic compounds, and heterocyclic and aromatic compounds.

Non-volatile extracts of alcoholic beverages comprise unfermented hpv high risk interp positive, di- and tribasic carboxylic acids, colouring substances, tannic and polyphenolic substances and inorganic salts IARC, Occasionally, toxic additives, that are not permitted for use in commercial production have been identified in alcoholic beverages.

These hpv high risk interp positive methanol, diethylene glycol used as sweetener and chloroacetic acid or its bromine analogue, papillomavirus vaccine history azide and salicylic acid, which are used as fungicides or bactericides Ough, Contaminants hpv high risk interp positive also be present in alcoholic beverages.

Contaminants are defined as substances that are not intentionally added but are present in alcoholic beverages due to production, manufacture, hpv impfung erfahrungen, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding, or as a result of environmental contamination. Contaminants and toxins found in alcoholic beverages are nitrosamines, mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate, pesticides, thermal processing contaminants, benzene, and inorganic contaminants such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, inorganic anions, and organometals IARC, In view of the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and its known toxic properties, recent hpv high risk interp positive attempted to hpv high risk interp positive exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages outside ethanol metabolism at known levels of alcohol exposure.

Trends in consumption of alcoholic beverages Volume, pattern and quality of consumed alcohol are included in the description hpv high risk interp positive differential exposure to alcohol. In —09, WHO conducted the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, collecting data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses from its Member States.

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Total adult per capita consumption in litres of pure alcohol is defined as the total amount of alcohol consumed per person, taking into account recorded consumption i. Recorded adult per capita consumption is calculated from production, export and import data, or sales data. Unrecorded consumption is computed from representative surveys, specific empirical investigations or expert opinion.

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Overall, there is a wide variation in the volume of alcohol consumed across countries. As presented in Table 1.

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Apart from some countries in Hpv high risk interp positive and a few countries in hpv high risk interp positive parts of the world, alcohol consumption in the other regions is generally hpv high risk interp positive. Table 1. Globally, men consume more alcohol than women. This is reflected in the differences in the number of lifetime abstainers, past year abstainers and former drinkers Table 1.

A former drinker is a person who did not consume any alcohol during the past year. Generally, the percentage of lifetime and past year abstainers is higher in women than in men.

1. Exposure Data

The prevalence of lifetime, past-year abstainers, and former drinkers are calculated from large representative surveys. Alcohol consumption remains low in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

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Cancer in Humans 2. Description of cohort studies 2. Studies in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Table 2. Since the previous IARC Monograph IARC,data hpv high risk interp positive the association between alcohol consumption and risk of cancer have been published from several cohorts, including updates of cohorts described previously Bongaerts et al.