It is important to distinguish between primary ovarian cancer and metastatic cancer abdominal pain bloating in the ovary because their management is different, in terms of treatment and follow-up. We report the perioperative cancer abdominal pain bloating of a year-old female patient with bilateral Krukenberg tumors.
Este important să se facă distincţia între cancerul ovarian primar şi tumorile metastatice ale ovarului, deoarece managementul lor este diferit în ceea ce priveşte tratamentul şi urmărirea. Raportăm managementul perioperator al unei paciente de 40 de ani, cu tumori bilaterale Krukenberg. Cuvinte cheie tumora Krukenberg cancer gastric imunohistochimie Introduction Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct cancer abdominal pain bloating pathology and oncogenic potential and being subclassified into several categories based on two criteria: the degree of epithelial proliferation and invasion and the histotype of the epithelium composing the tumors 1.
In particular, Krukenberg tumors are represented by metastases of mucin-secreting signet ring cell cancer, arising primarily from the gastric carcinoma, to ovarian tissues 2. The clinical presentation of Krukenberg tumors includes abdominal or pelvic pain, bloating, ascites, unexplained lethargy, irregular period and pain during sexual intercourse. Krukenberg tumors can occasionally provoke a reaction of the cancer mamar limfatic stroma which leads to hormone production, that results in vaginal bleeding, a change in menstrual habits, hirsutism, or occasionally virilization as a main symptom 5,6.
Regarding the paraclinical diagnostic, most imaging features are non-specific, consisting of predominantly solid components or a mixture of cystic and solid cancer abdominal pain bloating typically, those tumors are described sonographically as bilateral ovarian masses, with an irregular hyperechoic solid pattern, with clear well defined cancer abdominal pain bloating and moth-eaten cyst formation 7.
Deep invasion, lymph node involvement, and peritoneal metastasis are more frequent in gastric SRCC compared with other subtypes of gastric cancer, so the prognosis of Krukenberg tumor is reticent 9.
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Case report We report the case cancer abdominal pain bloating a year-old female patient, without a significant pathological personal history, who has been admitted two months ago in the Department of Gynecology of a regional hospital, accusing pelvic pain and dysfunctional menstrual cycles. She was cancer abdominal pain bloating with bilateral ovarian cysts for which reevaluation was recommended.
About 3 weeks ago, the patient was referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest for an interdisciplinary consultation.
What is Abdominal Bloating? (Stomach Pain)
The transvaginal ultrasound showed two non-homogeneous tumors, predominantly with a cancer abdominal pain bloating aspect, alternating with hypo-echogenic areas and zones of intratumoral necrosis, without capsular breakage; uterus of normal size and echogenity, evidence of fluid within the pouch of Douglas 10 mm. CA tumor markers were recommended. The local clinical examination revealed normal non-specific vaginosis for which the patient received antibiotic and antiinflammatory treatment for 7 days.
When reevaluating, the patient showed discrete relief of symptoms, with persistence of pelvic pain, and accusing meteorism. The patient was admitted in the hospital for reevaluation and for establishing the therapeutic conduct. We performed a new transvaginal ultrasound which indicated the same aspects, except for increased peritoneal fluid 30 mm in the recto-uterine pounch - Figure 1 and Figure 2. Figure 1. Tumoral transformation of the right ovary; non-homogenous structure, predominantly cancer abdominal pain bloating Figure 2.
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CT of thorax - note the lack of pulmonary metastases Figure 4. CT of pelvis - note the presence of bilateral ovarian tumors with predominant tisular and The general condition of the patient deteriorated, with cancer abdominal pain bloating occurrence of vomiting and pain in the right hypochondria and the epigastrium.
Managementul perioperator al unui pacient cu tumoră Krukenberg - studiu de caz
General surgery consultation was requested to exclude a sub-occlusive syndrome, followed by upper endoscopy which showed a normal aspect, with the exception of enlarged folds in the vertical portion of the stomach, but which distended fully under insufflation.
The hematology consult confirmed the diagnosis of coagulopathy of possibly paraneoplastic etiology. We decided to improve the coagulopathy by the administration of fresh frozen plasma. Under general anesthesia, an exploratory laparotomy cancer abdominal pain bloating performed see Figure 5. We detected peritoneal carcinomatosis with infra-centimetric disseminations on the epiploon and mesentery. We also observed free peritoneal fluid in a small amount and cancer abdominal pain bloating liver metastases with various sizes cm.
Figure 5. Intraoperative images. Cancer abdominal pain bloating - The macroscopic aspect of the two ovaries that were enlarged, but without capsular breakage; B - The macroscopic aspect of the liver - note the presence cancer pancreatic stage 4 multiple metastases; C - The macroscopic aspect of the intestinal loops and mesentery - note peritoneal carcinomatosis; D - Sectioned left ovary - note the presence of large tumors that distorted the normal anatomy We decided and practiced tumor cytoreduction through total hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy, with the piece being sent to histopathological examination histopathological extemporaneous examination showed undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma with Mullerian cells ; tactical omentectomy and biopsy of all secondary lesions were also performed.
The postoperative evolution was favorable with the improvement of cancer abdominal pain bloating symptomatology; the patient was discharged after 5 days and she was guided to the Oncology Department to follow the specialized treatment after receiving the final histopathological result.
After 4 days she returned to the Emergency Room for epigastric pain, vomiting, intense meteorism and absent intestinal transit. An abdominal radiography was performed which showed hydroaeric levels. The patient was admitted in the Department of General Surgery with the diagnosis of occlusive syndrome. A surgical reintervention in a multidisciplinary team was performed.
Intraoperatively, we found an early adherence syndrome. After an extensive histopathological analysis which included multiple immunohistochemistry tests, the diagnosis of Krukenberg tumors was established Figure 6. Figure 6.
Histopathological analysis The postoperative evolution was favorable, with improvement of digestive symptomatology; the patient will perform other specialized investigation echo-endoscopy and she was guided to the Oncology Department for specific postoperative treatment.
Discussions Krukenberg tumor is an uncommon metastatic adenocarcinoma of ovaries arising primarily from the gastric carcinoma, which may cause diagnostic confusion with primary ovarian tumors 3. Although he proposed it as a primary tumor of ovary, later it was proved to be secondary to gastrointestinal tract malignancy 4. Ovaries affected by these tumors retains its shape, irrespective of the size 3.
Our case sustains the bilateral feature of the tumors, with tumoral sizes described in literature. Transabdominal sonography of abdomen and pelvis is the primary imaging and screening modality for females with gynecological complaints. The ultrasound examination of patients with Krukenberg tumors shows varied echogenicity ranging from purely solid to purely cystic. In contrast with the primary ovarian tumors in which criteria used to describe the ovarian malignancy irregular solid tumor, ascites, at least 4 cancer abdominal pain bloating structures, multi-loculated solid tumor with the largest diameter over mm and the presence of increased Doppler flowmost frequently, Krukenberg tumors will be homogenously hyperechoic solid masses with few cysts within.
There will be large lead vessel penetrating the mass from the periphery and nourishing the tumour by branching in tree pattern, cancer abdominal pain bloating as lead vessel sign, with high speed and low resistance on spectral Doppler cancer abdominal pain bloating,